Indicator model for benchmarking the transition to a low carbon urban mobility system: Application results from three Scandinavian cities
Abstract: Cities today consume over 80% of the world’s energy and are responsible for 75% of the total GHG emissions. Over 80% of the population in Europe live in Urban areas. The mobility system, being at the heart of urban activities is responsible for the movement of people, goods and services and is responsible for attracting investments into cities. Playing such a key role in urban development, the sector contributed to over 25% of the GHG emissions from urban areas in Europe. The European Union has thus set out specific targets to decarbonize the mobility sector. With the increasing need for the transition to a low carbon mobility system, it has been identified that there is a need for a benchmarking model that is tested on sectoral frontrunners to enable performance evaluation and guide transitions. Being informed by this need, this study aims at the development of a benchmarking model based on the Avoid-Shift-Improve framework for the evaluation of a low carbon mobility system. The model has been developed based on specific measures targeted at addressing behavioural and technological change required in the mobility system to help aid the GHG emission reduction of urban mobility system have been identified. The model has been tested on the three Scandinavian capital cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen and Oslo, considered as sectoral forerunners due to their diverse activities to reduce GHG emissions from the mobility system. The results of the tests show that the model is able to predict the priorities of the city and the resultant low carbon mobility score is correlated positively with GHG emission reductions. The study also highlights the specific areas of improvement for the three cities and the different considerations that go into the selection of specific measures to improve the system.
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