: Extraction of β-carotene from orange peel and carrot waste for cotton dyeing
Abstract: The further usage of vegetable and plant waste from juice pressing industry as textile dyes is presented in this thesis. The thesis is focused on β-carotene (C40H56) dyestuff extracted from orange peel and carrot residue. The three organic solvents; ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and hexane/acetone (1:1 v/v) were used for the extraction. The analysis of the extract was done by RP-HPLC with a C18 column. The yield and the purity of the extracted β-carotene were determined. The highest yield was achieved with petroleum ether whereas the other two solvents were nearly as good. The highest and purest amount on β-carotene was found in the extracts of carrots. The dyeing process was continued with β-carotene dyestuff of orange peel and carrot residue extracted from 27 g of residue on 0,8 g cotton in the dyeing ratio 1:50. Unmordant and post mordanted bleached and mercerized cotton fabric was dyed. 10% alum of the weight fraction of cotton was used as mordant. Colour measurements (K/S, C', L', a', b', h and ΔE) and fastness properties as light- (ISO-Norm B02) and wash fastness (ISO 105 – C) were tested. Fair light fastness grades were achieved by β-carotene dyestuff of orange peel residue dyed on cotton fabric. Poorer were the grades for β-carotene dyestuff of carrot residue for both unmordanted and mordanted samples. The wash fastness couldn’t achieve reasonable results neither for β-carotene dyestuff from carrots nor orange peel residue, dyed on cotton fabric.
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