Centralised Distribution Grid Energy Storage Systems : Placement and Utilisation for Grid Expansion Deferment
Abstract: Following an ongoing change towards an increasingly renewable power generation system Swedish grid operators are facing several challenges in coming years. As authorities plan for the decommissioning of nuclear power an increased reliance on de-centralised energy sources such as photo-voltaic distributed generation (PVDG) is expected. A technology observed in some cases to accompany local power quality issues severe enough to impose grid expansion measures from distribution system operators (DSOs). Considering a combination of an indicative utilisation inefficiency of classical grid expansion measures and a recent year maturing of various energy storage technologies, this report sets out to evaluate the possibility of utilising centralised energy storage systems (ESSs) for deferment of classical grid expansion measures. For the purpose of identifying the most prominent problem scenarios of modern production- and consumption behaviours as well as the possible solutions offered by centralised ESSs, a literature review of journal articles and technical reports was conducted in combination with a case-study of an existing urban grid operated by Umeå Energi Elnät AB (UEEN). The work regarding ESSs is directed with specific focus towards evaluating which ESS services can potentially facilitate grid expansion deferment and what ESS placement is advisable for efficient utilisation. Assessing possible grid safety implications, potential for peak load shaving and the presently most suitable energy storage technology was also within the scope of the study. The literature review reveals PVDG induced feeder line over-voltage and transformer overload the most likely and previously observed implications imposing grid expansion measures. The former more prominent in elongated, typically rural, grids and the latter in more densely populated urban grids. For deferment of over-voltage related grid expansion measures a centralised ESS can be utilised for voltage support provided placement is made close to the affected grid section, presumably far out the affected feeder line. This result is coherent throughout the reviewed literature and is supported by the results of the case-study. Distribution transformer overload and its imposed grid expansion measures can be deferred through load re-allocation and peak load shaving, two services proven achievable by centralised ESSs and the capacity for which increases if ESS placement is made closer the distribution transformer. Provided present regulatory and standards are adhered to upon installation, significant negative impact of centralised ESSs on distribution grid safety can be avoided. Most energy storage technologies, including battery based energy storage technologies indicated from the literature review providing the most suitable characteristics for use in centralised distribution grid ESSs, utilise well established systems for grid connection hence no presently unsolvable grid safety implications are identified. Technical reports of real applications of centralised ESSs reinforce this argument as successful implementation without ESS caused grid safety implications have been achieved in the Swedish distribution grid in the past.
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