Operating Instructions in the process industry: Model 1 or Model 2?
Abstract: A qualitative case study has been conducted about the management and use of operating instructions in a process plant in Sweden. The work was inspired by Dekker's notion of two paradigms in relation to procedures, where Model 1 is authoritarian and top-down, and Model 2 is flexible and consultative (Dekker, 2003). The results support Dekker's hypothesis, that organizations should strive towards Model 2, where "safety results from people being skilful at judging when (and when not) and how to adapt procedures to local circumstances" (Dekker, 2003, p. 235). Based on the literature review and the case study, the researcher concludes that both Model 2 theories, and some of the traditional practices associated with Model 1, are indeed valid and useful. Based on the findings, a framework was developed to illustrate potentially useful practices regarding the management and use of operating instructions in process industries.
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