Modelling resources to supply Ethiopia with renewable electricity by 2030
Abstract: Energy is a crucial factor when it comes to development. Among other electricity is important when advancing the living standards of a society as it facilitates various actions and mechanisms. Through the past years social trends such as increased population have put energy and electricity systems under stress as they have often been based on limited and unsustainable fossil fuels. A need for a shift from the conventional fuels to renewable sources becomes more prominent and development needs to be performed in a sustainable way. Ethiopia is one of the countries who have expressed a desire to reach sustainable development by adapting United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. This project focuses and analyzes more specifically Ethiopia’s relation to, and possibility of reaching Goal 7 - sustainable energy for all. It attempts to find a future configuration of energy sources which will create an electricity system which will benefit the economy, the social aspect and the environment. The aim is to have a cost-efficient energy mix which supplies all of Ethiopia’s inhabitants with electricity without having to contribute with any carbon dioxide emissions. A literature review is performed to obtain country specific information such as geographical predispositions, and a field trip to Addis Ababa is conducted where data regarding the electricity system is collected. Modelling is then carried through by usage of tools MoManI and OnSSET and the obtained results show a continuous trend in all scenarios where solar and wind compromise the biggest part of electricity production in 2030 and after. Every scenario also allows all inhabitants access to electricity by year 2030. Further, four out of five scenarios ensures elimination of carbon dioxide emissions by 2022, and all five by 2030.
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