WELL-TO-WHEELS ANALYSIS OF HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK FUELS : A comparison between LNG, LBG and Diese
Abstract: Heavy-duty trucks accounts for 25% CO2 emissions in Sweden and there is approximately 12.6 million heavy-duty vehicles in the EU with different types of fuel and utilization areas. EU is implementing increased legislations to reduce emissions and increase the use of biofuel and members of the EU is starting to ban the use of diesel trucks in local areas, which drives the need to find other suitable fuel. Therefore, to study and compare the emissions and energy demand in the heavy-duty truck industry a case study is created. Which focuses on production and processing, transportation, distribution and fuel consumption. Cultivation of maize and anaerobic digestion of maize, waste and manure is included as well. Data gathered from the collaboration between the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, eucar and Concawe (JEC) is used to create scenarios and these are validated with previous studies. The case study includes seven LNG cases, three LBG cases and two diesel cases together with several other cases collected for verification. Furthermore, potential boil-off and leakage during maintenance is included to further estimate the possible emissions correlated with LNG and LBG vehicles. The Well-to-Wheels analysis resulted in most LNG and LBG cases having higher energy input compared to diesel. LBG has the lowest emissions of greenhouse gases. The transportation method and distance are the most important aspects for the Well-to-Tank analysis. The fuel consumption is the main source of emissions and energy input in the Tankto-Wheels analysis. In conclusion, the transportation and fuel consumption are the greatest contributors of emissions and energy demand in the complete Well-to-Wheels analysis.
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