Costly Remedial Actions Coordination
Abstract: The energy sector is evolving and the role of the Transmission System Operator (TSO)must adapt to these new changes. In fact, the energy transition modies both the natureof the production sources by integrating intermittent energies and the classical structureof the grid, going from a centralized topology to a distributed topology.In this particular context, the TSO has to balance production and demand while ensuringthat the system is operated in a safe and optimal manner. These new challengescan not be achieved by independently, it is necessary to introduce a strong coordinationand collaboration between European members. This desire to co-ordinate the operatingmethods of the system on a European scale as well as to harmonize the market in orderto favor exchanges, is pushed by the European Commission in the form of NetworkCodes. In order to maximize the exchanges between bidding zones, it is necessary tocalculate the available exchange capacity and assess potential risks for the grid by conductingjoint analyzes between neighboring countries. If there is a risk of congestion on anetwork element because of an excessive exchange between TSO, it is possible to managethis overload by activating measures called Remedial Actions.The legal framework requiresTSOs to establish a detailed coordination methodology for Capacity Calculation,Common Security Analyzes and activation of Remedial Actions.In addition, the activation of RA often leads to a signicant cost for the TSO concerned.These congestion management costs may arise especially in particular situations of highdemand, poorly estimated production or modied topology due to a fault. Given thatthese risks of congestions are sometimes induced by neighboring bidding zones, it isnecessary to also foresee a methodology for sharing these costs so as not to penalize theTSOs polluted by their neighbors.This thesis provides a detailed description of this process for a particular region ofEurope. Indeed, the region linking the west center to the east center is the heart ofthe European network and trade. This particular position induces many dicultiesand dierent methodologies to answer them. During this project I was led to analyzethese possibilities on dierent scenarios, propose improvements or new approaches. Inparticular, this report highlights the factors that have a strong inuence on the sharingof Remedial Actions costs in order to allow the TSOs members of this region to have abetter visibility and transparency on the consequences of such a methodology.
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