Mixed Embeddedness: Ethnic entrepreneurship in Malmö, Sweden

University essay from Lunds universitet/Sociologi

Abstract: Entrepreneurship among immigrants is an old phenomenon that is caused by migration processes. It is receiving special attention due to the fact that its potential in contribution to countries‟ economies is huge. In European context it is a reason and a cause of international mobility, immigrant policies, integration issues and diversified society composition. Studying of immigrant entrepreneurship as a socio-economic process, especially in multicultural environments, allows researchers not only to predict or control social changes but also maintain market situation. This study was made through the lens of Robert Kloosterman‟s approach of mixed embeddedness and focused on ethnic entrepreneurship among immigrants in Malmö, Sweden. During data collection process interviews with ethnic entrepreneurs were conducted in order to receive primary data. Together with secondary data I analyzed whether it is possible to apply mixed embeddedness to chosen context. My research showed that despite the complexity of Kloosterman‟s approach, all three main components (social, economic and institutional environment) reflected on Malmö case and were used by ethnic entrepreneurs as opportunity structure for their businesses. This research was made for bachelor thesis, but I believe that it may support existing study of immigrant/ethnic entrepreneurs, and particularly contribute to the research on Swedish context.

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