Development of grout for deep shaft
Abstract: In tunnel engineering one of the most important factors are the groundwater flow. To solve this problem a method called grouting is commonly used. In this study grout mixes are developed based on specific requirements for a deep shaft located next to a body of water. These circumstances require a grout with extraordinary penetrability and durability. During the excavation of a shaft, different groundwater pressures and fracture structures is going to be present. This creates conditions where different types of grouts are necessary. In order to develop grout, there are several factors that needs to be taken into consideration. Some of these are the cement properties, additive properties and amounts, water cement ratio, mixing regime, external physical impact etc. In this study several experiments were used to determine the properties of the grout mixes in order to fulfil the requirements needed for certain rock conditions. Three different cements and several additives have been used in different combinations in order to find the right mix. The first step of the experimental process is to do screening tests. The screening tests consists of penetrability, flow and density tests. After a grout passes these tests, several other tests are performed to ensure the right properties. In the beginning of the experiments, problems occurred with one of the cements which led us to suspect the quality of the cement. In order to ensure that the sources of error from lab equipment, different production dates, conditions of cements and additives are excluded several tests were performed. The test results of the cement did not improve regardless of the troubleshooting.When another cement type was tested the results immediately improved and passed the screening test. The test results from the new cements and additives led to further testing and development of two approved grout mixes. When another cement type was tested the results immediately improved and passed the screening test. The test results from the new cements and additives led to further testing and development of two approved grout mixes.
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