On the Way to Developing the Triple Helix Indicator. Contribution from Quantitative Empirical Studies
Abstract: In this paper, review and appraisal of twelve quantitative empirical studies in the stream of the Triple Helix model is performed in order to synthetize current knowledge on development of the quantitative Triple Helix indicator as well as to suggest some hypotheses and recommendations for the further research. Studies under consideration represent six approaches towards measuring Triple Helix relations, namely: mutual (configurational) information among three helices, φ-coefficients and partial correlation; embeddedness indicators; graphical representation of Triple Helix relations using the Vector Space model; patent-based indicators; and, regression models. Different approaches are analyzed in terms of their theo-retical and methodological foundations, used data, dependent/independent variables, considered Triple Helix relations (bilateral, trilateral, etc.) as well as their perspective on the Triple Helix model (neo-institutional/neo-evolutionary). The results of the study have shown that (1) instead of developing single Tri-ple Helix indicator, it is necessary to establish a system of indicators; (2) there is a need to perform empirical research on bilateral university-government and industry-government relations from the perspective of the Triple Helix model; and, (3) operationalization of bilateral relations in terms of quantitative variables requires developing multidimensional vector variables.
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