Is There A Glass Ceiling In Japan? : Occupational Segregation and Sex Differences inManagerial Promotions in Japan
Abstract: This paper analyses the difference probability in holding managerial positions between men and women in Japan as the glass ceiling effect. In addition, we analyses whether the difference is affected by gender composition within the workplaces. We estimate two specifications of an ordered logit model on Japanese General Social Surveys (JGSS) as well as Japanese yearbook of labor statistics in the year 2010. The results indicate that there is different probability of holding managerial status that women have lower probability of holding managerial positions irrespective of management level comparing to men. However, we can observe that the differentials are decreasing as the managerial positions move up into higher managerial hierarchies. This finding indicates that women have higher chance to hold higher positions. Thus, it is contradict to our hypothesis. In addition, the result suggests that the gender composition also matter in probability of holding managerial status between male and female in Japan. We inspect that the difference probability in holding managerial status between genders is greater in female dominated occupation. This finding shows the effect of glass ceiling that occurs when women work in female dominated occupation as it follows the theory.
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