An Energy-efficient 32-bit multiplier architecture in 90nm CMOS

University essay from Linköpings universitet/Institutionen för systemteknik


A fast and energy-efficient multiplier is always needed in electronics industry especially DSP, image processing and arithmetic units in microprocessors. Multiplier is such an important element which contributes substantially to the total power consumption of the system. On VLSI level, the area also becomes quite important as more area means more system cost. Speed is another key parameter while designing a multiplier for a specific application.

These three parameters i.e. power, area and speed are always traded off. Speaking of DSP processors, area and speed of MAC unit are the most important factors. But sometimes, increasing speed also increases the power consumption, so there is an upper bound of speed for a given power criteria. Considering the battery operated portable multimedia devices, low power and fast designs of multipliers are more important than area.

The design of a low power, high speed and area efficient multiplier is thus the goal of my thesis work. The projected plan is to instantiate a good design and modify it for low power and speed and prepare its layout using 90nm technology in Cadence®. For that purpose study has been performed on a number of research papers presented in section 7 and selected one of the architecture presented by Jung-Yup Kang and Jean-Luc Gaudiot. They presented a unique technique for power reduction in Wallace tree multipliers. They have proposed a method to calculate 2’s complement of multiplicand for final Partial Product Row (PPR) if using MBE technique. This method has been used in the design for speed enhancement and power reduction.

The ultimate purpose is to come up with such an architecture which is energy and area efficient than a conventional multiplier at the same performance level. This report describes the design and evaluation of new energy-efficient 32-bit multiplier architecture by comparing its power, performance and chip area to those of a conventional 32-bit multiplier. The report throws light on the basic principles and methods of binary multiplication process and also the power consumption issues related to multipliers. The new algorithm, which reduces the last negative signal in the partial product row is discussed to develop the new architecture. A power performance comparison is shown. The simulation results show that the new architecture is 46 % energy-efficient than a conventional multiplier at the same performance level. The number of transistors used is 34% less and also it consumes 25% less chip area in 90nm CMOS technology.

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