Chief Bishop by the Sword: an Idiographic Case Study of the First Crusade from the perspective of Just War Theory and Defensive Neorealism
Abstract: In this thesis I sought to study the doctrine of the just war within the context of the First Crusade. Utilising an aggregate theory consisting of just war theory, defensive realism, and poliheuristic decision-making, I operationalised my research questions in an idiographic case study scrutinising two transcriptions of a speech Pope Urban II made at Clermont in 1095. I found that the differing accounts gave rise to two distinct lines of justification for military intervention, which I call Fulcher’s and Robert’s Pope. I conclude that Fulcher’s Pope meets the principles for being construed as a ‘just war,’ whilst Robert’s Pope does not. The main cause of this discrepancy stems from the weight of humanitarian intervention. In the former, the humanitarian imperative is ‘urged by necessity,’ and the role of assisting an alliance partner is stressed; in the latter, it comes secondary to military adventurism and ideas of possessing a superior heritage.
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