Analysis of reliability improvements of transformers after application of dynamic rating
Abstract: In this project dynamic thermal rating for transformers and its effect on transformer reliability are investigated. A literature review is done on different thermal models used for this purpose and at the end differential equations model from IEC 60076-7 and bottom oil model from IEEE C57.91-1995 standard are selected to calculate hot spot temperature. A wind farm connected transformer is selected to implement the models. This transformer belongs to Ellevio AB and manufactured by ABB AB. Load data are gathered for every 5 minutes during 2016. Loss of life of transformer is calculated and it is concluded that by considering this factor, the transformer is overdesigned. The optimum size of transformer by utilizing dynamic rating is selected which results in a reduction in investment cost. This method can be used to select the appropriate size oft ransformer by taking advantages of ambient temperature variations and overload the transformer beyond nameplate ratings without exceeding transformer temperature limitations. Moreover, the risk of overloading the transformer at any time during 2016 is calculated. The risk of overloading is quantified as loss of life of transformer. It is shown that this risk is a function of ambient temperature and the duration of overloading. Finally, an economic analysis is done to demonstrate economic benefit of expanding wind farm by overloading the existing transformer by reducing the transformer life expectancy while keeping it in a safe limit.
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