An IoT Solution for Urban Noise Identification in Smart Cities : Noise Measurement and Classification
Abstract: Noise is defined as any undesired sound. Urban noise and its effect on citizens area significant environmental problem, and the increasing level of noise has become a critical problem in some cities. Fortunately, noise pollution can be mitigated by better planning of urban areas or controlled by administrative regulations. However, the execution of such actions requires well-established systems for noise monitoring. In this thesis, we present a solution for noise measurement and classification using a low-power and inexpensive IoT unit. To measure the noise level, we implement an algorithm for calculating the sound pressure level in dB. We achieve a measurement error of less than 1 dB. Our machine learning-based method for noise classification uses Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients for audio feature extraction and four supervised classification algorithms (that is, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbors, bootstrap aggregating, and random forest). We evaluate our approach experimentally with a dataset of about 3000 sound samples grouped in eight sound classes (such as car horn, jackhammer, or street music). We explore the parameter space of the four algorithms to estimate the optimal parameter values for the classification of sound samples in the dataset under study. We achieve noise classification accuracy in the range of 88% – 94%.
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