Follow-up interventions and measurement instruments for patients suffering from psychotic disorders : A literature review.
Background: Continuity of care and post-discharge follow-up visits can improve the quality of care and reduce the likelihood of relapse and re-hospitalization in patients with psychotic disorders.Purpose: This study aimed to analyze post-discharge follow-up interventions in patients with psychotic disorders, and to identify measurement instruments for intervention outcomes.Method: The literature review described here used a specific framework, where the follow-up interventions and the measurement instruments were analyzed systematically, to investigate fifteen studies identified through electronic databases such as Pubmed, Psychinfo, ProQuest, Cinahl, Medline, and Scopus.Results: The studies used interventions including psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive behaviorally oriented service, optimal clinical management, relapse prevention plan, software suggested intervention, ambulatory outpatient care, community re-entry module, integrated treatment, and hospital-based community psychiatric service. Additionally these studies used thirty-eight measurement instruments to assess change in psychiatric patients or their relatives, based on psychological, social, and occupational factors as well as specific symptoms and symptom severity. The instruments also measured quality of life, insight, self-esteem, and cognitive function. Further, the studies examined therapeutic alliances and the experience of family members. The most commonly used instruments were the Global Assessment of Functioning and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.Conclusion: The interventions reviewed here emphasize an individualized approach that targets education, illness management, coping strategies, social skills training and relapse prevention, and seeks to alter any harmful understanding of the illness. Although researchers can choose among numerous interventions, psychoeducation was the most appealing follow-up intervention for patients suffering from psychotic disorders. Importantly, evaluation instruments must be relevant to psychological symptoms, treatment, time and resources available, and what questions were being sought to answer. Approximately eleven of the thirty-eight instruments reviewed here showed weak or unclear reliability and validity. The most practical instrument for evaluating the outcome of an intervention for patients suffering from psychotic disorders wasthe Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.
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