The interaction of human carbonic anhydrase II to solid surfaces and its applications
The adsorption of proteins to solid surfaces has been extensively investigated during the past 20-30 years. The knowledge can be applied in biotechnological applications in for example immunoassays and biosensors. Human carbonic anhydrase II is a widely studied protein and the CO2-activity makes it an interesting candidate for biotechnological purposes. To make this possible, the factors affecting the adsorption of proteins have to be mapped. The stability of the protein is under great influence of the adsorption and the protein tends to undergo conformational changes leading to a molten globule like state upon adsorption. The stability of a protein also affects the extent of conformational changes and the nature of the adsorption. A more stable protein, adsorbs with less structural changes as a consequence of adsorption, and desorbs from the surface more rapidly than a less stable one. Also the hydrophobicity, charge and area of the surface are affecting the interaction with the protein. Still, the same adsorption pattern is noticed for the same protein at different surfaces, leading to the conclusion that the properties of the protein affect the interaction, rather than the properties of the surface. Biosensors containing carbonic anhydrase have been developed. These make measurement and detection of zinc ions possible. To be able to use carbonic anhydrase as a potential agent in biotechnology, attached to solid surfaces, the protein has to be biotechnologically engineered to get a more stable structure, or else the denaturation will destroy this possibility.
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