Labor-market status and first-time parenthood: The experience of female minorities in the United States, 1979-2012
Abstract: Background. The United States has been a diverse country since it is establishment. The effects of socioeconomic characteristics including immigration, age, employment status, educational attainment on total fertility rate have been discussed in the previous studies. Objective. The objectives in this study are to explore whether the difference in the timings of first childbirth among Hispanic women, Black women, and Non-Hispanic, Non- Black women exist in the United States and what factors affect the timings of first childbirth by means of exploiting the National Longitudinal Survey. Design. The National Longitudinal Survey 1979 is used as the dataset in the study. 5276 female respondents, whose age is from 17 to 22 years old, participated in the survey. The Cox Proportional Hazard Model estimates the risk of first childbirth among various races by 2012. The effects of ethnicity and educational attainment on the timing of first birth are calculated using an interaction regression. Results. The female employment exerts negative impacts on the timing of first childbirth. The extent to which the female employment prevents parenthood is different among various ethnicities. The risk of first childbirth in female minority with higher education is not different with that in Non-Hispanic/Non-Black women. The risk of first childbirth in single women is the lowest.
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