Pilot Protection Based on Directional Detection

University essay from KTH/Elektriska energisystem

Abstract: Nowadays two main types of protection schemes widely used in protection of transmission lines are: distance protection and differential protection schemes. However, it has been noticed from industrial practice that the distance protection scheme used today generally is limited in tripping speed and selectivity. Also differential protection scheme is influenced by the time synchronization of samples in both relays installed at transmission line terminals. On the other hand, among various pilot protection schemes for protection of Extra High Voltage (EHV) / Ultra High Voltage (UHV) transmission lines, the schemes which use communication link only for exchange of local decision making about faults’ status are not affected by time synchronization. This master thesis is dealing with the issue of developing reliable and fast fault detection scheme for protection of EHV/UHV transmission lines which is a requirement in modern power systems. The protection algorithm proposed in this thesis is based on the detection and analysis of traveling waves on transmission lines at inception of the faults. This algorithm relies on directional comparison between initial arrivals of traveling waves at each end of the protected line. This will determine whether or not a fault is inside the protected zone. In addition to, based on high voltage transmission network protection requirements proper phase selection algorithm is developed to handle single- phase tripping. Finally, by simulations carried out in PSCAD environment practical design considerations for implementing the new developed protection algorithm in a numerical relay unit is investigated. The results of simulation show that the proposed pilot protection scheme solves several issues encountered by using the conventional schemes and provide reliable and high speed protection for transmission lines.

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