Time lapse VSP monitoring of small scale injected CO2 in the Frio formation, Texas, USA
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is one of the most significant reasons of global warming. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a high level technology used in recent decades to reduce the emission rate of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. One of the principal methods in CCS is to store the captured CO2 in deep and suitable geological structures.
In October, 2004, sixteen hundred tons of supercritical CO2 were injected at a depth of 1530 meters in the Frio formation sandstones in south of Texas, USA. Time lapse monitoring of VSP data was one of the chosen geophysical techniques to detect the small scale injected CO2 in the Frio test project. A pre-injection survey had been done in July, 2004 and the same data acquisition was repeated 45 days after the injection as a post injection survey.
In this research, time lapse data processing steps were applied to the VSP data and final results successfully detected the injected CO2 by identifying the changes in reflection amplitudes over time at the injection depth. Additionally, synthetic models were produced and compared with real models which were in accordance with each other.
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