Robust Automotive Positioning: Integration of GPS and Relative Motion Sensors
Automotive positioning systems relying exclusively on the input from a GPS receiver, which is a line of sight sensor, tend to be sensitive to situations with limited sky visibility. Such situations include: urban environments with tall buildings; inside parking structures; underneath trees; in tunnels and under bridges. In these situations, the system has to rely on integration of relative motion sensors to estimate vehicle position. However, these sensor measurements are generally affected by errors such as offsets and scale factors, that will cause the resulting position accuracy to deteriorate rapidly once GPS input is lost.
The approach in this thesis is to use a GPS receiver in combination with low cost sensor equipment to produce a robust positioning module. The module should be capable of handling situations where GPS input is corrupted or unavailable. The working principle is to calibrate the relative motion sensors when GPS is available to improve the accuracy during GPS intermission. To fuse the GPS information with the sensor outputs, different models have been proposed and evaluated on real data sets. These models tend to be nonlinear, and have therefore been processed in an Extended Kalman Filter structure.
Experiments show that the proposed solutions can compensate for most of the errors associated with the relative motion sensors, and that the resulting positioning accuracy is improved accordingly.
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