Performance Analysis of Unskewed Asymmetrical Rotor for LV Induction Motors
This master thesis presents a comparative analysis of the starting performance and losses at rated operation for a 15 kW, 4-pole industrial induction motor, mounted with standard skewed, unskewed and unskewed asymmetrical die-cast aluminium rotors through measurements and simulations. It is a well-known fact that rotor skewing suppresses the synchronous torques at low speeds and also reduces the audible noise of the machine. However, the casting process results in a low resistive path between the rotor bars and the iron laminations, for skewed rotors, this promotes the flow of inter-bar currents. These currents, flowing between the rotorbars, increase the harmonic torques during a start and create additional losses at rated operation. For standard unskewed rotors, these losses are ideally zero, but these rotors may produce high audible noise. Studies have shown that rotors with asymmetrical rotor slot pitch can reduce the audible noise level in unskewed machines. By removing the skew, the inter-bar current losses are suppressed to a negligible level; ultimately increased machine efficiency is obtained. In this work the electrical performance is verified through measurements on the built prototypes. Direct-on-line starts and rated performance for motors with different rotor slot arrangements is simulated using 2D FEM tool FCSmek. The three prototypes are tested in the laboratory according to IEC 60034-2-1 standard and the simulation results are in good agreement with the measured results. An additional test for the measurement of high frequency delta connected stator winding currents for each prototype machine is also performed, in order to study the losses induced in the stator winding. Results have shown that by introducing the proposed asymmetry in the rotor slots, the synchronous torques at low speeds are suppressed effectively, thus, improving the starting performance of the asymmetrical rotor compared to the standard unskewed rotor. Additionally, a higher pull-out torque is obtained for the unskewed rotor motor compared to the standard skewed rotor motor. However, the losses were more or less re-distributed in the unskewed rotor motor, resulting in similar efficiency as the standard skewed rotor motor. One important observation is that; to capture the inter-bar current losses which are estimated to be 5.5% of the total losses, requires more accurate methods of measurements than the existing. And sufficient repeatability must be achieved; alternatively one should rely on statistical data obtained from measurements on several number of motors.
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