Insatser och åtgärder för främjandet av laddelbilar i Sverige
Abstract: To achieve the goal of fossil independency in the Swedish vehicle fleet in 2030, it would be important to substantially increase the proportion of electric vehicles, both BEV:s (Battery Electric Vehicles) and PHEV:s (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles). The Swedish Energy Agency has funded numerous research and development projects about electric vehicles in recent years. An important task for the Swedish Energy Agency is to allocate state funds to those projects with the greatest potential to contribute to increased establishment of electric vehicles in society. The purpose of this work is mainly to understand the efforts and measures that can make the market for electric vehicles to grow. The report can contribute to a better understanding of how far the research on electric vehicles has come and what has to be done in the future to promote the establishment of electric vehicles. Another aim for this report is that it should serve as a basis for future decisions by the Swedish Energy Agency on which projects that will be funded with state funds. The following questions are answered in this report: 1. Analyzing what type of research that is most important for increased establishment of electric vehicles in society. 2. Clarify the type of research that the Swedish Energy Agency invests the most in. 3. Determine whether or not the perceptions of the Swedish Energy Agency, on what research should be performed, match other actors’ opinions? 4. Analyze which of the current policy instruments that work well/not so well and what new policy instruments that could be powerful and have a major impact on market formation. 5. Analyze how you should work to achieve a greater legitimacy for electric vehicles. 6. Analyze what is important to emphasize in the communication with the public to achieve greater acceptance for electric vehicles. In order to answer the questions, a summary of completed and ongoing projects financed by the Swedish Energy Agency was made within the research area of electric vehicles. Old projects (from 2008-01-01 to 2014-01-31) was compared with the current (as of 2014-02-01) to investigate how the research focus on electric vehicles have changed and how the target for different categories of projects have developed. In addition, an interview summary was made where the views on promotion issues for electric vehicles were investigated for different stakeholders. The overall conclusions of the work are: • Research on batteries, charging and behaviors are particularly important. • The Swedish Energy Agency mainly supports research on energy storage, charging and demonstration. • The perceptions of the Swedish Energy Agency, on what research that should be performed, match other actors’ opinions. • Of the current policy instruments used for electric vehicles in Sweden, the carbon tax and the reduced taxable benefit for company cars are the instruments which can support the establishment of the electric vehicles in the most powerful and appropriate way. • Vehicle taxation and the super car rebate have little effect on electric vehicle sales. • There should be a requirement in the Swedish construction act to prepare new parking lots for future deployment of charging infrastructure. • A new bonus/malus system should be introduced. • The information about electric vehicles should reach the early adopters first, i.e. taxi services, home services, commuters, or other users who drive long distances every day. • We need a higher level of knowledge about the marginal electricity and the emissions trading scheme. • Research is needed to increase knowledge about the environmental impacts of battery manufacturing. • Demonstration is needed to help people learn more about electric vehicles. • Electric vehicle marketing should to a greater extent focus on the low running costs and the quick response when accelerating, instead of low carbon emissions.
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