T-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding Data Preprocessing Impact on Image Classification using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Abstract: Image classification in Machine Learning encompasses the task of identification of objects in an image. The technique has applications in various areas such as e-commerce, social media and security surveillance. In this report the author explores the impact of using t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) on data as a preprocessing step when classifying multiple classes of clothing with a state-of-the-art Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN). The t-SNE algorithm uses dimensionality reduction and groups similar objects close to each other in three-dimensional space. Extracting this information in the form of a positional coordinate gives us a new parameter which could help with the classification process since the features it uses can be different from that of the DCNN. Therefore, three slightly different DCNN models receives different input and are compared. The first benchmark model only receives pixel values, the second and third receive pixel values together with the positional coordinates from the t-SNE preprocessing for each data point, but with different hyperparameter values in the preprocessing step. The Fashion-MNIST dataset used contains 10 different clothing classes which are normalized and gray-scaled for easeof-use. The dataset contains 70.000 images in total. Results show minimum change in classification accuracy in the case of using a low-density map with higher learning rate as the data size increases, while a more dense map and lower learning rate performs a significant increase in accuracy of 4.4% when using a small data set. This is evidence for the fact that the method can be used to boost results when data is limited.
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