Design and Fabrication of 1550 nm Photonic Crystal Surface Emitting Lasers
Abstract: In this study, the design and fabrication of a monolithic InP-based 1550-nm photonic-crystal surfaceemitting laser (PCSEL) is reported. The device is composed by an InGaAsP multi-quantum well (MQW) active layer and InP photonic crystal (PhC) formed by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). A theoretical study based mainly on the Fourier modal method using Stanford Stratified Structure Solver (S 4) and finite element analysis using COMSOL Multiphysics was carried out in order to optimize the emission at 1550 nm due to the two-dimensional band-edge resonance effect at the Γ point.The device design and modeling, materials testing (annealing and MOCVD regrowth), process optimization and the fabrication of light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on the same structure as the PCSELs (without the PhC) is reported. The fabricated devices show a low series resistance of 8.19 Ω and a turn-on voltage of 0.84 V. The average differential output power is 41 mW/A with an electroluminescent peak at 1511 nm. The full assembly of the final PCSEL devices is beyond the scope of the present thesis and corresponds to an ongoing project expected to be finalized within the coming year. However, detailed guidelines and fabrication instructions, including the manufacturing of an appropriate lithographic mask set, are provided.
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