Green Parking Purchase : A Study of Policy, Implementation and Acceptance of Travel Demand Management
Abstract: This study utilized both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate different actors and layers of policy, implementation, and reception of pro-environmental Travel Demand Management policy and measures in Umeå. One initiative by Upab (Umeå Parkering AB) and Umeå municipality, Grönt parkeringsköp, which means moving parking spaces from the central area of Umeå and replacing them with facilities that promote sustainable travel, was investigated more thoroughly. The data was collected through a manually distributed survey in three properties that have implemented Grönt parkeringsköp, as well as through interviews with property owners. Utilizing discourse analysis, thematic analysis as well as OLS-regressions, the results have shown that the comprehensive plan of Umeå puts emphasis on sustainable growth to 200 000 inhabitants, as well as minimising car traffic in the central areas of town, mainly through densification of already built-up areas. The property owners stated several motives to implement such policies, including ecological, financial as well as brandstrengthening benefits. Attitudes amongst survey respondents are generally positive towards measures that improve conditions for bicycle users, and more negative towards push-measures. There are different predictors for attitudes and perceived importance of Travel Demand Management measures, including altruism and self-interest. The use of the installed measures through Grönt parkeringsköp however appear to be limited, possibly due to a lack of information.
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