Built-up edge formation in stainless steel milling
Abstract: Milling tests were performed in stainless steel to investigate the formation of built-up edge (BUE). Three variants of tests were conducted which were divided as high-, medium, and low temperature milling tests. These tests were run in the austenitic stainless steel SS2343. The medium temperature milling tests were run in duplex SS2343 and precipitation hardened CORRAX. BUE was found for all tests. With the exception of the high temperature milling tests, BUE was formed locally on the main cutting edge. When milling at higher temperature the BUE covered the entire edge. All inserts used, each with different technologies had the same amount of BUE formation. The tool wear was similar for the CVD-coated inserts used, while the PVD-coated insert suffered less coating detachment along the edge. Cross sections showed that in addition to BUE, smearing had occurred on the rake face of the inserts, showing that multiple layers of material adhered to the tool surface. Cross sections also showed that the tool wear was similar for the different milling methods, even though it was known that tool failure eventually would be caused by different wear types. Microhardness tests of the BUE gave results where the austenitic- and duplex stainless steel had in average almost doubled their hardness. Work hardening for CORRAX was lower with an average hardness increase below 9 percent. As CORRAX gave the same amount of BUE formation as the other steels it could be concluded that work hardening did not affect the amount of BUE formation. For one sample milled at high temperature a new phase had formed on the insert surface. Analysis in EPMA and EDS indicated that it contained chromium, manganese and oxygen. This indicated that the stainless steel had oxidized when milled at higher temperature. When comparing the composition, it was similar for both BUE and the workpiece material SS2343. The only exception was that titanium could be found in the bulk of the BUE, having higher amount when milled at higher temperature. This indicated that the BUE had interacted with the coating, as this was the only source of titanium.
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