Modeling, Simulation and Correlation of Drag losses in a Power Transfer Unit of an All- Wheel Drive System
Abstract: A Power Transfer Unit (PTU) of an All-Wheel Drive System is a hypoid gear transmission unit that distributes the power from the vehicle transmission to all wheels of the vehicle. This thesis aims at increasing the fidelity of the analytical power loss calculation methods through test data correlation and develop a 1D simulation model that can be used to evaluate the drag losses in the PTU at early design stages. Firstly, the analytical methods to predict the frictional losses and oil churning losses due to the hypoid gearset, rolling bearings and seals immersed in oil are studied. Several drag loss tests with different combinations of internal components, bearing preloads and with/without the presence of oil were previously conducted on the PTU at different speeds and temperatures at zero torque. The power losses are computed in ROMAX Energy and Excel using different analytical methods available in the literature for each component in the PTU. Then the results from the drag loss tests are segregated component-wise for data correlation with the losses evaluated previously. Based on the data correlation, modification factors are introduced for all analytical methods to match the segregated test results. The demand in the automotive industry to reduce time to market is high. Hence, system-level simulation was chosen as a solution to assess the system efficiency at early concept design stage, saving a lot of time and aid the detailed design. 1D simulation technique is used to study the total power loss of the PTU to optimize its design. The thesis is aimed at developing a 1D system model of the PTU in a commercial tool called LMS AMESim, to evaluate the total power loss of the unit. Inbuilt component models from the software library are used to build a sketch of a simplified lumped mass model of the physical system. The model is simulated in a time domain temporal analysis. The total power loss results simulated using AMESim are compared to the efficiency tests results conducted at different torque levels and ROMAX results. Comparisons between the simulations and test data shows that the system model is accurate and can be used in predicting the power losses in the PTU in the early design stages. This model can also be used to study the influential factors through sensitivity analysis of different parameters which can be done as an extension to the current scope of this work.
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