Diagonal compression of Cross-Laminated Timber
Abstract: Twelve blocks of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) were built, tested and simulated. Three types of blocks with different laminate directions in the middle/second layers were used: 0/30/0, 0/45/0 and 0/90/0. Simulations with three-dimensional quadratic orthotropic linear elastic finite elements were conducted. The goal was to compare tested in-plane shear stiffnesses for CLT blocks made from Norway Spruce (Picea abies) boards of C24 quality with a finite element (FEM) simulated block stiffness. Three-layer CLT were studied with block dimensions of 600 x 600 x 45 mm. The first and last layer laminate directions were assumed to be 0○. The middle layer laminate directions were 30○, 45○ and 90○. A 1 mm gap was assumed between the side edges. The glued contact surfaces were assumed to be perfectly glued with rigid glue in the simulations. In the practically tested blocks a PVAc D2 classified glue was used. All blocks were simulated and tested in the same loading arrangement as the practical test set-up. The blocks were compressed in the diagonal direction. Blocks of 0/30/0 and 0/45/0 were compressed twice, once over each diagonal. The 0/90/0 blocks were compressed over one diagonal. A total of 19 practical compression tests was performed; in all cases, the displacements were measured in the force- and orthogonal direction. The stiffest loading case, measured in the force direction, was the loading arrangement 0/45/0-A. The weakest loading case, measured in the force direction, was the loading arrangement 0/30/0-B. The same result could be concluded from the FEM simulations. The calculated stiffness in the loading direction was between 1.21 – 1.87 times larger than the measured stiffness. The models pressed in the “weakest” direction gave the largest difference between the simulated and measured stiffness.
AT THIS PAGE YOU CAN DOWNLOAD THE WHOLE ESSAY. (follow the link to the next page)