Long-term forecasting model for future electricity consumption in French non-interconnected territories

University essay from KTH/Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM)

Abstract: In the context of decarbonizing the electricity generation of French non-interconnected territories, the knowledge of future electricity demand, in particular annual and peak demand in the long-term, is crucial to design new renewable energy infrastructures. So far, these territories, mainly islands located in the Pacific and Indian ocean, relies mainly on fossil fuels powered facilities. Energy policies envision to widely develop renewable energies to move towards a low-carbon electricity mix by 2028.  This thesis focuses on the long-term forecasting of hourly electricity demand. A methodology is developed to design and select a model able to fit accurately historical data and to forecast future demand in these particular territories. Historical data are first analyzed through a clustering analysis to identify trends and patterns, based on a k-means clustering algorithm. Specific calendar inputs are then designed to consider these first observations. External inputs, such as weather data, economic and demographic variables, are also included.  Forecasting algorithms are selected based on the literature and they are than tested and compared on different input datasets. These input datasets, besides the calendar and external variables mentioned, include different number of lagged values, from zero to three. The combination of model and input dataset which gives the most accurate results on the testing set is selected to forecast future electricity demand. The inclusion of lagged values leads to considerable improvements in accuracy. Although gradient boosting regression features the lowest errors, it is not able to detect peaks of electricity demand correctly. On the contrary, artificial neural network (ANN) demonstrates a great ability to fit historical data and demonstrates a good accuracy on the testing set, as well as for peak demand prediction. Generalized additive model, a relatively new model in the energy forecasting field, gives promising results as its performances are close to the one of ANN and represent an interesting model for future research.  Based on the future values of inputs, the electricity demand in 2028 in Réunion was forecasted using ANN. The electricity demand is expected to reach more than 2.3 GWh and the peak demand about 485 MW. This represents a growth of 12.7% and 14.6% respectively compared to 2019 levels. 

  AT THIS PAGE YOU CAN DOWNLOAD THE WHOLE ESSAY. (follow the link to the next page)