Energy Usage of Smart Wayside Object Controllers : An investigation and theoretical implementation of feasible energy storage and energy harvesting technologies in connection to a railway system

University essay from KTH/Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM)

Author: Alexandra Jerresand; Micaela Diamant; [2021]

Keywords: ;

Abstract: With climate change threatening life, countries worldwide have united to limit the damages generated by humanity to the world. For a sustainable future, it will be essential to utilise energy in more ecient ways. Energy harvesting in the form of renewable resources and innovative solutions for industries are some answers to an improved tomorrow. The net-zero greenhouse emission target by 2045 in Sweden puts pressure on the energy-demanding sectors to nd intelligent new ways to support their processes. For the railway industry, this results in digitalisation and new smart systems to optimise the railway operations to create an updated, more competitive and resource-ecient transport system in Sweden and Europe. This master thesis work is developed through a European research program to investigate the energy usage for wayside objects. In order to analyse these subjects, two primary objectives were decided. The first main objective was to distinguish and create an energy system in connection to the railway system, and also implement Smart Wayside Object Controllers, SWOCs. The second objective was to nd such a system's potential, specically for a case study in Sweden. To reach the objectives, the thesis work has been combining both a quantitative and qualitative research method. Data have been collected partly from a literature review and partly from gatherings by the cooperating companies, Alstom and Trakverket. The combined data collection was further used in the modelling and applied in the case study. Following this implementation, an analysis was conducted, leading to results, discussion, and conclusion. In order to establish the demand from the energy system, non-disclosure values of the power consumption for each object were given by the cooperating company Alstom. Lithium-ion batteries, wind power, and solar photovoltaic were, from the literature review, found as the technologies most feasible for implementation after the limitations for the scope were decided. Suitable batteries were found, where the storage capacity was one crucial factor for the storage to function, which resulted in Tesla Powerwall 2 being the most feasible battery. For solar PV, dierent modules were compared in the software System Advisor Model, with the smallest possible conguration, which led to the manufacturer SunPower having the highest annual energy production per installed ground area. Dierent sizes, manufacturers, and constellations for wind turbines were investigated, resulting in a yearly overproduction for all congurations. However, two solutions were found for an installation with only wind power regarding the daily production and demand. Congurations combining both solar PV and wind power were also investigated, resulting in an additional solution consisting of one turbine, PV modules and a battery storage system. The final recommendations for the case study resulted in congurations consisting firstly of one 10 kW turbine with three battery units, secondly of one 6 kW turbine and one 10 kW turbine with two battery units and lastly of one 10 kW turbine combined with a solar PV conguration with two battery units. These installations all met the demand from the railway system and were within the frames of the limitations as well as the set assumptions. It was apparent that several factors aected the outcome of the case study. By implementing the energy system at a different location, the system showed substantial improvements and several more feasible solutions. By also changing the railway system's demand, new possible solutions could be found. Concluding, the energy system is highly location dependant, and if implemented at a dierent place, the research should be performed from the beginning for optimal results.

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