Trygghetsskapande design av Mörby stadspark
Abstract: The purpose with this thesis is to investigate how to design a urban space so that it is experienced safe and how to implement this at an actual site. Knowledge on the subject has been gathered through litterature studies and interviews with experts. Through an analysis of the site with surroundings and studies of projects with similar problems, practical actions have been observed. Part taking in the municipalities planning process has given insight in the projekt as an whole and the interests of different parties. There are many different opinions about what the word safety means. It is a feeling depending on situation, that is affecting our daily behaviour. Safety can be divided into the actual safety and the perceived safety. The actual safety is the lack of or protection against risks, while the perceived safety is the personally experienced feeling of safety. My definition of the word safety is described with the "Safety Concept". It consists of three aspects: Control, Constant and Contact. For the experience of safety there needs to be a balance between these three. Social and situational prevention is mentioned within the field of crime prevention. In this thesis I focus on the situational prevention, which means the physical form of a place and the maintenance of it. The City Beautiful movement wanted to create a beautiful city center, make the citizens proud of it and thereby get a sense of belonging. The ambition was to achieve a common moral and social control. Jane Jacobs advocates variety and multiplicity in both the built environment, efficacies and people. According to her it shapes a living urban environment and a safe society. The CPTED-theory explains that criminal behaviour is depending more on the environmental conditions than the character of the individual. Therefore are both social and environmental actions needed. Oscar Newman's theory about Defensible Space is focusing on urban residential areas and aims to prevent crime through an physical expression of the social structure. The Broken Windows theory is about the importance of maintenance in an area. The idea is to take action as soon as a minor crime is comitted and thereby prevent serious crime. Space Syntax is a analysismethod that investigates how spatial networks interact seen in the users perspective. Since the movements in a city is generated by its form, a good urban environment should have segregated local streets inside an integrated road network. The Swedish Police Authority has produced the handbook "BoTryggt05" that is focusing on the situational crime prevention. It's aim is both to build out crime and to build in safety. "Brå" is a research center within the justice department that is assigned by the Swedish government to reduce crime and increase safety in the society. It is also supporting local crime prevention. At the "Östra Ågatan" in Uppsala, Sweden, an open urban space has been created with room for everyone, and thereby a safer environment. After consultation with the citizens "Högdalens Centrum" was made car-free and got flower pots, and thereby became a safer environment. In central Stockholm the "Sergelgången" has been renewed and privatized to gain control over the problems with drug users at the site. The work has also been supported with social actions. A workgroup in Sundbyberg has formulated a plan of action to improve the safety. The plan includes lighting, maintenance, surveillance and house protection. A tunnel has also been transformed to become brighter and more lucid. The discussion leads to the conclusions: ' Democracy is depending on the respect of the citizens that is created by safety, and the citizens safety is essential for a democratic society. ' The integrating method should be used to create a democratic society and the isolating method should be allowed to protect the individuals right to integrity close to the residense. ' The presense of other people creates a sense of safety. ' A place should be associated with positive memories and a sense of belonging. ' It is important to clearly communicate what is public and what is private. ' Management and maintenance is essential to uphold the actions for safety. ' Physical design can effect peoples actions and experience of a place. When the studied theories and investigations are related to the Safety Concept, it reveals that most theories are focusing on Controlling and Constant actions. My ambition is to balance the three aspects. I have formulated six "Safety Factors" that are important for design of a safe urban space. They are Presence, Activity, Clearness, Visibility, Caretaking and Consideration. It is all about being at the site, seing the place and the people there, taking care of it and feel for it. Then I've applied these six Safety Factors on the proposal for Mörby Stadspark. From the drawn conclusions and the wishes of the municipality an ideaprogram has been formulated for the park. It is including a site analysis, a situation plan, sections, perspectives, a lightingplan and a schematic designprogram. The ideaprogram can be used as a base for the future planning to achieve a safe urban space.
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